The three papers in this session examine the ways that Indigenous peoples and polities shaped the early United States. Ned Blackhawk argues that settler ideologies in western Pennsylvania after the Seven Years’ War fostered violent aggression toward Indians in colonial society and fueled anti-monarchical sentiment. Susan Sleeper-Smith reveals how Native victories over the US Army in the 1790s Ohio River Valley forced President Washington to pursue a policy of peace framed by the priorities of Algonquian-speaking women. Michael Witgen examines Anishinaabeg efforts to assert US citizenship while maintaining their Indigenous identity during the era of Indian removal in the Michigan and Wisconsin Territories. Drawing on his research and publication expertise in this era, Colin Calloway will chair and comment on the session. All these topics highlight the ways that Indigenous peoples countered settler-colonial efforts for their removal and erasure and contributed to the contingent nature of the new United States.