Francisco Tiapa's paper aims to examine the impact of the Spanish sense of “civilised” and productive social spaces on the Indigenous sense of landscapes between the north-eastern Orinoco River and the south-eastern Caribbean basin in the 17th and 18th centuries. He will analyse the creation of culturally hybrid and overlapping perceptions of nature and Indigenous responses to these ecological and political impositions. Andreas Greiner's paper examines how German colonial road & rail builders - in their efforts to construct all-weather infrastructure to replace caravan roads - sought to overcome both natural constraints and the resistance of indigenous workers, revealing the limits of colonial rule in East Africa. Karen Miller argues that American lawmakers and administrators attempted to adopt the technologies of settler colonialism formulated in the U.S. and implement them in the Philippines in the early twentieth century. They used internal “colonization” to reinvent existing geographies and pacify frontier people and environments. Indigenous people disrupted these efforts, which also hit up against the limits defined by the “tropical” environment within which they were initiated. Finally, Bernard Moore's paper explores the construction of jackal-proof fencing throughout the arid, sheep-farming districts of southern Namibia during the 1950s-70s. He shows that jackal-proof fencing aided white farmers not just in controlling and eliminating carnivore threats, but it also drastically reduced the black shepherding labor force, consolidating apartheid governance structures. His work illustrates a unique point of confluence between environmental and economic history, as well as the history of animals and technology.