Jared Hardesty focuses on state-owned slaves used by the British Royal Navy in Jamaica. Contested loyalties are at the center of this story; these slaveholders may have undermined their obedience to the chain of command in purchasing slaves whose allegiances were not well matched with the institution that sought to benefit from their labor. Andrea Mosterman moves the discussion earlier and into questions of economic versus institutional motivation. Mosterman explores how the Dutch West India Company sought to persuade or control employees involved in the African slave trade. How did slavers literally navigate when the Company instructed them to sell slaves in New Netherland but a sale in another location could be more profitable? Finally, Richard Boles problematizes religious obedience and slavery in northern British colonies. Slaveholders often believed that Christianity could make slaves more dutiful, but enslaved African Americans had complex loyalties, including sometimes to particular churches and religious tradition. Slaves used the rhetoric of religious duty to pursue goals contrary to slaveholders’ interests. Together these papers suggest that the meaning of loyalty among slaves and slavers was contested and contingent among local circumstances, uneven power balances, and individual decisions.