Our panel includes three presenters who will each speak for fifteen minutes. Toussaint Losier, the panel chair, will then offer a brief comment on the papers before opening the floor to discussion. We begin with Melanie Newport’s paper, “’Metropolitan Corrections’ and Prisoners Rights Struggles in Chicago’s Jails,” which examines how procedural reforms and the expansion of prisoners’ rights inspired a wave of activism around jail conditions during the 1960s. Highlighting the work of a range of actors—including the League of Women Voters, celebrities, and inmates themselves—she argues that policy-based reforms rooted in penological research undermined prisoners’ struggles within the jail. Next, Andrew Baer turns our attention to Chicago’s police torture scandal and its aftermath in his paper, “The Jon Burge Police Torture Scandal and the Explanatory Limits of the Carceral State Paradigm.” Baer suggests the “carceral state paradigm,” which connects the rise of mass incarceration to law-and-order rhetoric, federal funding of local law enforcement, the war on drugs, and police militarization, does little to explain the emergence of a torture regime in 1970s Chicago. While political and legal changes at the national level influenced police departments across the United States, local developments continued to determine the nature and frequency of police violence in Big City America. Finally, Amanda Hughett’s paper “Rights without Remedy: Federal Judges and the Prison Litigation Reform Act,” demonstrates how federal legislators drew on federal judges’ language regarding inmates’ “frivolous” lawsuits to pass legislation effectively shutting the doors to litigation challenging prison conditions and practices. The legislators’ success, she suggests, highlights judges’ far-reaching ability to shape American politics and illuminates how the history of prisoners’ marginalized legal status continued to shape inmates’ relationship to the law well after the Rights Revolution. Together, these papers call scholars to rethink the federal court's role in transforming criminal justice institutions after the 1950s.