The two papers draw on data collected in two different ways: to put it simply, they analyze modern DNA and ancient DNA. The presentation by Sir Walter Bodmer shows the use of DNA from contemporary individuals to create a “genetic map” of the people of the British Isles, revealing links of genetic clusters to geography and to past events thought to reflect population change. The presentation by Krishna Veeramah draws on DNA collected from human remains thought to be associated with migrating communities of people known as Lombards. The genetic analysis is associated with archaeological analysis of the grave sites. The commentators, two multidisciplinary historians, will review the genetic analysis and comment on the historical skills and approaches that best complement the technical side of genetic analysis, highlighting factors that distinguish the analysis of modern and ancient DNA.