This paper explores the highly-mediated transcripts of the case of Antonio de Rojas, a Filipino mestizo accused by the Inquisition of summoning ancestor-spirits, or anitos, in the seventeenth-century Philippines. The paper illuminates how Southeast Asian cultural and religious practices shaped interactions in Spanish Asia, also revealing the social complexity and ethnic diversity of the countryside near the municipalities of Iloilo and villa of Arévalo, which hosted Visayan Filipino workers and peasants, Hokkien artisans and merchants, and Spanish and Filipino soldiers. Their unfree populations included indigenous debt servants and foreign enslaved people from societies influenced by Malay, Malukan, and Islamicate practices.
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