The new elites of the late sixteenth century were recruited from the provincial governing cadres. Although they had military and governmental experience, they had never undergone the palace training that gave the old elites a common language and culture (shared with the sultans). They were “ignorant, uncultured,” as the old elites wrote in advice works, no matter what skills they acquired in the households of provincial governors or the military ranks. Place marked them as it did the old elites, branding them unfit for high office at the center. When the old elites complained about the empire’s decline, they meant that the role of place in developing people for state service was disrupted. The Ottomans recovered from these conditions starting in 1632, when Sultan Murad IV restored the landholding military grants. Confirming the status of the new elite, he co-opted them into state service, altering the empire from a conquest state to a more unified polity.
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