The research is examined within the context of Muslim women’s gender roles and the development of Muslim identity in America. Oral history methodology and archival research were used to gather research findings, with emergent themes analyzed using a hermeneutical approach to transformative analysis within an Islamic paradigm.
The research findings reveal implications about Muslim women's gender roles and the ongoing negotiation of difference within the racially and ethnically diverse Muslim American ummah (religious community). The initiative, leadership and agency of the women who founded both schools emerge as testaments to their faith and to their identities both as women and as American Muslims. Ultimately, the research raises implications about the location of Islamic schools in the history of American education, as both the Seattle and Baltimore schools emerge as unique hybrids of both the American and Islamic histories and traditions.